Deprecated: Return type of Aventura\Wprss\Core\DataObject::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/Aventura/Wprss/Core/DataObject.php on line 783

Deprecated: Return type of Aventura\Wprss\Core\DataObject::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/Aventura/Wprss/Core/DataObject.php on line 808

Deprecated: Return type of Aventura\Wprss\Core\DataObject::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/Aventura/Wprss/Core/DataObject.php on line 770

Deprecated: Return type of Aventura\Wprss\Core\DataObject::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/Aventura/Wprss/Core/DataObject.php on line 795

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::offsetExists($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 63

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::offsetGet($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 73

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::offsetSet($key, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::offsetUnset($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 102

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Cookie_Jar::getIterator() should either be compatible with IteratorAggregate::getIterator(): Traversable, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Cookie/Jar.php on line 111

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::offsetExists($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 40

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::offsetGet($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 51

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::offsetSet($key, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 68

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::offsetUnset($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 82

Deprecated: Return type of Requests_Utility_CaseInsensitiveDictionary::getIterator() should either be compatible with IteratorAggregate::getIterator(): Traversable, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-includes/Requests/Utility/CaseInsensitiveDictionary.php on line 91

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: strlen(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 234

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: substr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/includes/functions.php on line 235

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::offsetExists($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Data/AbstractDataSet.php on line 44

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::offsetGet($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Data/AbstractDataSet.php on line 24

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::offsetSet($key, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Data/AbstractDataSet.php on line 60

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::offsetUnset($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Data/AbstractDataSet.php on line 76

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 124

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 97

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 109

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 136

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 83

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::offsetExists($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Data/AbstractDataSet.php on line 44

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Entities\Collections\WpEntityCollection::offsetGet($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Entities/Collections/WpEntityCollection.php on line 97

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::offsetSet($key, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Data/AbstractDataSet.php on line 60

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::offsetUnset($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Data/AbstractDataSet.php on line 76

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 124

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 97

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 109

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 136

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Data\AbstractDataSet::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 83

Deprecated: Return type of Twig\Node\Node::count() should either be compatible with Countable::count(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/vendor/twig/twig/src/Node/Node.php on line 213

Deprecated: Return type of Twig\Node\Node::getIterator() should either be compatible with IteratorAggregate::getIterator(): Traversable, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/vendor/twig/twig/src/Node/Node.php on line 221

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Database\WpdbTable::offsetExists($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Database/WpdbTable.php on line 124

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Database\WpdbTable::offsetGet($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Database/WpdbTable.php on line 105

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Database\WpdbTable::offsetSet($key, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Database/WpdbTable.php on line 140

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Database\WpdbTable::offsetUnset($key) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Database/WpdbTable.php on line 159

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Database\WpdbTable::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 124

Deprecated: Return type of RebelCode\Wpra\Core\Database\WpdbTable::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/o6y9pz8rqrwg/public_html/ethical-advisor.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-rss-aggregator/src/Util/IteratorDelegateTrait.php on line 97

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Page 2 – Championing progress, accountability, sustainability and diversity.
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Wells Fargo Broker Recruiting Rebound Has Finally Arrived: CEO Scharf

Wells Fargo & Co. Chief Executive Charles Scharf delivered another vote of confidence for the bank’s wealth management unit on Tuesday, touting recent wins in broker recruiting. The parent bank’s scandals and bad press had long stifled such growth, Scharf acknowledged with retrospective frankness. “If you were to talk to our advisors, they would feel […]

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Why is Bitcoin price down today?

Bitcoin (BTC) price has seen a gradual decline in its bullish momentum to hit a new monthly low at $16,736 on Dec. 3. The move follows a market-wide decline that has already set BTC capitulation records in the aftermath of the FTX-induced contagion.Stocks started the day slightly up after losing nearly 1,000 points since the start of the week. To date, Bitcoin price remains closely correlated to equities and stock market investors have concerns about the policy discussions that will occur at the next Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting on Dec. 13. BTC correlation to equities. Arcane ResearchWhile some analysts believe Bitcoin’s bottom is near, others believe more downside is on the way due to BTC’s close correlation to DXY and equities.Let’s investigate the main reasons why the Bitcoin price is down today. On-chain data cites historic “peak realized losses”Bitcoin price is reacting to a near year-long downtrend and the recent stress caused by FTX’s bankruptcy. The most recent price downturn came right as analysts predicted that a bear market bottom had been found.Data from Glassnode shows Bitcoin hit an all-time low in realized profit-to-loss ratio. Bitcoin realized profit and loss. Source: GlassnodeWhile this data may suggest that Bitcoin price recovery is possible, the overall market can continue to exacerbate these losses. Generally, these large losses may remove some entities from the market altogether, hindering recovery. Rising interest rates in the US and abroad weigh on Bitcoin priceBased on the Consumer Price Index Report, inflation in the United States increased by 0.4% in October compared to the previous month. Inflation has been a determining factor in raising interest rates.The Consumer Price Index report – the most widely followed barometer of inflationary pressure in the United States – climbed 7.7% in October compared to the same month a year ago. With the upcoming CPI reporting event on Dec. 13, Bitcoin may continue to see volatility as the overall market reacts to the numbers. FTX contagion led to deleveraging and reduced liquidity in the crypto marketIn the last two weeks, balance sheet documents and other leaked spreadsheets have highlighted the high degree of commingling that was happening between market makers like FTX, Alameda and other major players in the crypto sector. DCG’s Grayscale Bitcoin Trust currently holds 633,000 BTC, placing it as one of the largest holders of the digital asset. Another Digital Currency Group (DCG) subsidiary, Genesis Trading has exposure to FTX and the recent volatility has left an apparent $1 billion hole in their balance sheet. The fact that Genesis is struggling to secure funding, and signaling that it may have no other choice but to file for bankruptcy, is causing investors to believe another next black swan event is in the making. Grayscale BTC holdings. Source: CoinglassAs market makers and firms struggle to maintain operations, the fall-out is witnessed directly through reduced trading volumes. According to Arcane Research, on Nov. 29, the real spot volume in BTC reached $510m, lows not seen since Oct. 2020. It should be noted that the statistic does not include Binance. Real BTC-USD Daily Volume. Source: Arcane ResearchRelated: Why is the crypto market down today?Further proof of a liquidity squeeze within the crypto market came from Blockstream, a top Bitcoin mining firm, raising funding at 70% lower than the company valuation. This is further proof that fallout from FTX may continue to ripple through large companies.SoFi is also under pressure from regulators. The Senate Bank Committee warned the company in letters on Nov. 21 to conform to banking standards. A response by SoFi is demanded by Dec. 8. In addition to the letter to SoFi, the Senate Banking Committee sent a letter to Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen to step in and reduce spillover.Is there a chance for Bitcoin price to reverse course? The short-term uncertainties in the crypto market do not appear to have changed institutional investors’ long-term outlook. According to BNY Mellon CEO Robin Vince, a poll commissioned by the bank found that 91% of institutional investors were interested in investing in tokenized assets in the following years. Around 40% of them already have cryptocurrency in their portfolios and approximately 75% are actively investing in digital assets or considering doing so.Worries are high after the FTX meltdown and the large divestment from Bitcoin is reflected by the high realized losses and correlation to the overall macro equities environment. With the FOMC upcoming, further divestment to reduce risk is possible. In the long term market participants still expect the price of Bitcoin to go up, especially as more banks and financial institutions are seemingly turning to digital cash for settlement purposes even amidst the chaos. The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Cointelegraph.com. Every investment and trading move involves risk, you should conduct your own research when making a decision.

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Crédit Agricole Launches Energy Transition Division to Coordinate Group-wide Actions

International banking and investment group Crédit Agricole announced the launch of Crédit Agricole Transitions & Énergies, a new business line aimed at coordinating and advancing the company’s energy transition actions and offerings. Crédit Agricole’s activities span corporate, investment and business banking, insurance, asset management, and other financial services through its brands that include Crédit Agricole […]

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Top State Regulator to Industry: Show Me the Data on WFH’s Impact

Andrew Hartnett’s stint as a securities regulator in Missouri ended a few years ago. But his time in the “Show Me” state nonetheless fits with his current role as the president of the North American Securities Administrators Association, where he is objecting, as a year-end deadline looms, to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority’s proposals to […]

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The Benefits of Implementing a CRM Solution

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software allows marketing teams to manage customer interactions better, track customer relationships, and monitor customer activity. It also will enable businesses to collect detailed profiles of their customers, allowing companies to target future products and offers to specific users. As technology becomes more sophisticated and affordable, it’s more important than ever […]

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Mazars says users’ BTC reserves on Binance are fully collateralized

South African auditor Mazars confirmed on Dec. 7 that cryptocurrency exchange Binance possessed control over 575,742.42 Bitcoin (BTC) of its customers, worth $9.7 billion at the time of publication. Mazars stated that “Binance was 101% collateralized.”The scope of the inquiry included customers’ spot, options, margin, futures, funding, loan and earn accounts for Bitcoin and wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC). Aside from the Bitcoin network, BTC wrapped on Ethereum, BNB Chain and BNB Smart Chain were also included in the inquiry.As part of its proof-of-reserves pledge, Binance requested an agreed-upon procedures (AUP), or an audit that is limited in scale, on Nov. 22. Commenting on the results, Mazars wrote:“We make no representation regarding the appropriateness of the AUP. This AUP engagement is not an assurance engagement. Accordingly, we do not express an opinion or an assurance conclusion. Had we performed additional procedures, other matters might have come to our attention that would have been reported.”As disclosed in its procedures, Mazars independently obtained the nominal value of Binance customers’ assets by testing a variety of wallet addresses controlled by the exchange. Auditors asked Binance to transfer assets to designated addresses and back in order to verify proof of ownership. In addition, the firm used its software to aggregate client data it obtained and computed the Merkle Root Hash. This allowed Binance’s clients to verify their Merkle Leaf independently and cryptographically as being part of the Merkle Root.“We have complied with the relevant ethical requirements. For the purpose of this engagement, there are no independence requirements with which we are required to comply.”

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JetBlue to Slash Per-Seat Emissions in Half by 2035

JetBlue announced a new commitment to reduce lifecycle emissions related to jet fuel by 50% per revenue tonne kilometer (RTK) by 2035, and provided a detailed outline of its plan to achieve net zero emissions by 2040, with a significant focus on low carbon solutions. JetBlue CEO Robin Hayes said that cutting emissions on half […]

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Legalization Amendment To Be Added to Missouri Constitution

Missouri’s state constitution will have a new entry this week, with the voter-approved recreational cannabis amendment slated to be added on Thursday. 

The Springfield News-Leader reports that while Amendment 3, which was approved by Missouri voters in last month’s election, will be added to the state constitution this week, “Missourians won’t be impacted by the majority of its legislation until next year.”

“At the earliest, recreational marijuana will be available for purchase in February. And though some non-violent marijuana offenses will be automatically expunged this week, this isn’t the case for all,” according to the News-Leader.

Voters in Missouri approved Amendment 3 last month by a vote of 53% to 47%. 

The leadup to the vote was shrouded in uncertainty for supporters of the amendment. It wasn’t until August that Missouri’s secretary of state confirmed that Amendment 3 had qualified for the ballot. 

There were questions in the summer surrounding the petitions submitted by Legal Missouri 2022, the group behind the amendment. 

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Dispensaries’ Cashless ATM Transactions Get The Ax

Cannabis dispensaries in several states were left scrambling to find ways to process transactions without cash when a popular workaround to federal banking regulations known as cashless ATMs stopped working for many retailers beginning last week. Cashless ATMs, also known as “point of banking” systems, allow customers to use bank cards instead of cash at cannabis dispensaries, giving retailers and their patrons alike more flexibility when processing transactions for marijuana purchases.

But beginning last week, some of the biggest ATM transaction processors including NCR Corp.’s Columbus Data Services have shut down the ability of cashless ATM transaction processors to use their service, according to unidentified sources cited by Bloomberg. NCR declined to comment on the situation, according to the report.

“This is a pivotal point in cannabis banking,” Ryan Hamlin, chief executive officer of payment technology provider Posabit Systems Corp., told Bloomberg about the cashless ATM shutdowns.

Notice Given Last Year

Late last year, international payment processing giant Visa announced in a memo to retailers that it “was aware of a scheme where POS devices marketed as ‘Cashless ATMs’ are being deployed at merchant outlets.” 

The system worked by rounding up purchases, often to multiples of $20, to make the transaction appear to be cash disbursements. Instead, only the change from the transaction would be returned to the customer, and the dispensary would keep the rest to cover the payment for the purchase.

“Cashless ATMs are POS devices driven by payment applications that mimic standalone ATMs. However, no cash disbursements are made to cardholders,” the December 2021 memo continues. “Instead, the devices are used for purchase transactions, which are miscoded as ATM cash disbursements. Purchase amounts are often rounded up to create the appearance of a cash disbursement.

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New Mexico Company Supports Medical Pot Patients With Workers’ Compensation Access

Bennabis Health recently announced that its medical cannabis program is now available to patients living in New Mexico. The company has partnered with AltaVida Dispensary, located in Albuquerque, to help aid medical cannabis patients, specifically with workers’ compensation cases involving a patient seeking to use cannabis as medicine for chronic pain.

“This is a tremendously exciting step in the growth of Bennabis Health as a visionary company clearing a path for those who can benefit most from medical cannabis where coverage is not otherwise available,” said Bennabis Health president Don Parisi. “Opening our network in New Mexico with AltaVida helps us progress in our mission to achieve medical cannabis benefits across the country.”

New Mexico’s Workers’ Compensation states that medical cannabis can be used by an injured worker “when deemed ‘reasonable and necessary care’ under the Workers’ Compensation Act.” However, patients have to pay out of pocket and are later reimbursed.

“In certain states like New Mexico and New Jersey, workers’ compensation claims cases can require medical marijuana costs be reimbursed by the carrier when it offers reasonable and necessary treatment as an appropriate alternative to opioids,” a Bennabis Health press release states. “However, in these cases the injured worker would have to pay out-of-pocket a substantial amount per month for their medical marijuana, and then seek reimbursement from their payor.”

Bennabis Health offers what they call a “layer of protection between the dispensary and the payor” through its membership program and a team of health insurance and cannabis industry professionals. One of its founders, Anne M. Davis, originally discovered cannabis as a treatment for her multiple sclerosis but her health insurance didn’t cover her switch to medical cannabis because it’s a federally illegal substance and Schedule I drug.

Earlier this year in March, the company partnered with a New Jersey dispensary to offer similar benefits prior to its expansion into New Mexico.

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Minnesota Files Lawsuit Against Several Companies for Illicit Edible Sales

The state of Minnesota said Monday that it is suing a trio of businesses for alleged violations of the state’s edible cannabinoid laws, saying that they are selling products that contain up to 50 times the permitted amount of THC. 

The lawsuit filed by the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy targets three companies, one of which, Northland Vapor—a company with retail locations in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota—allegedly “sold edible cannabinoid products that contain THC far in excess of five milligrams per serving and far in excess of 50 milligrams per package.”

Under Minnesota state law, the Board of Pharmacy explained, “an edible cannabinoid product…must not contain more than five milligrams of any hemp-derived tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in a single serving or more than a total of 50 milligrams per package.”

Investigators for the agency “found packages containing 2,500 milligrams of THC, 50 times the amount permitted under Minnesota law,” the Board said. 

Perhaps the most notable contraband swept up in the investigation were thousands of packages of the Delta-8 THC products known as “Death by Gummy Bears.”

As the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy explained, the “U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received complaints about serious adverse events associated with Northland Vapor’s ‘Death by Gummy Bears’ delta-8 THC products, including a death.”

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Decentralized identity: Proving it’s really you in the 21st Century

One-quarter of the global populace is going to be spending at least an hour a day in the metaverse by 2026, according to tech consulting firm Gartner, for shopping, gaming, education and more. But at some point, people are going to have to demonstrate that it’s really them behind the avatar.

That’s just one reason many believe that decentralized identity (DI) is likely to play an increasingly important role in Web3’s evolution. And even if DI has been generally overlooked by mainstream media, recent events suggest that is about to change.

Consider that in July, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) announced a new standard for decentralized identifiers, culminating years of mostly quiet work and deliberations in this area. In August, Gartner proclaimed DI a “must-know” emerging technology, where people can “control their own digital identity by leveraging technologies such as blockchain […] along with digital wallets.” Earlier this year, Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin proposed Soulbound Tokens (SBTs), which would include many DI elements in a non-transferable NFT format.

Sometimes called self-sovereign identity (SSI), decentralized identity can play a key role in mitigating fraud, data breaches, social engineering and theft in the expanding metaverse, say technologists, but perhaps more importantly, it may impact broad and diverse sectors of human endeavor, including education, healthcare, law, travel and employment. 

“I believe that SSI will be revolutionizing how we perceive identity management in the upcoming years,” Adam Gągol, co-founder of Aleph Zero, tells Magazine, while others suggest it is on course to disrupt traditional identity management. 

“I’m not sure I would say ‘disrupt’ as much as ‘catalyze,’” Scott Kominers, an associate professor at Harvard Business School who has written about DI, tells Magazine. “My hope is that decentralized identity solutions will make existing sources of information on individuals’ background, activity history and interests more powerful and useful than before.”

“An NFT of a diploma in your crypto wallet, for instance, would turn into a permanent academic certification,” Kominers and Jad Esber wrote recently in a Future article. 

Decentralized identity won’t necessarily exclude a bit of fun along the way, either. “With public histories, it would be possible to prove that you were early to a trend or active in a project before it took off — like, say, being into Taylor Swift before she was popular,” Kominers and Esber noted.

Recent events, like the collapse of the FTX crypto exchange, suggest other possible uses for DI/SSI, which can be applied to organizations as well as people. Fraser Edwards, CEO and co-founder at Cheqd, envisions “audit opinions issued as VCs [verifiable credentials], where the focus is less on sovereignty and identity but more on trusted data and reputation — i.e., ‘Do I operate in good faith?’ Or simply, ‘Am I trustworthy?’” he tells Magazine.

Decentralized identifiers and verifiable credentials 

DI has two main components: decentralized identifiers (DIDs), which are like traditional identifiers — a legal name, an email address, a social security number, etc. — with the key difference that DIDs are controlled and sometimes even issued by individuals. An example would be an Ethereum account. You can create as many Ethereum accounts as you like and share them with whomever you like. There is no central repository. They reside on an encrypted decentralized digital ledger — i.e., a blockchain. 

The second component is verifiable credentials (VCs). These can be derived from familiar credentials such as diplomas, library cards and passports, but again, they are not held on a centralized repository with a single point of control or failure, but on a blockchain where they can be read by machines. They offer familiar benefits like persistence and accessibility, but also more technical ones like cryptographic verifiability (your identity is more secure because it is encrypted) and resolvability — i.e., it’s possible to discover metadata about a user from that person’s DID. 

Kim Hamilton Duffy, director of identity and standards at Centre Consortium, offers this example of how decentralized identifiers and credentials might work in an education and employment context: 

A fictional “Sally” earns a master’s degree from the University of Oxford for which she receives a “digital diploma that contains a decentralized identifier she provided. This digital diploma is signed using a decentralized identifier which has been published and verified by the University of Oxford.”

Over time, Sally updates the cryptographic material associated with her DID, adding biometric protections and also a quantum-resistant algorithm. “A decade after graduation, she applies for a job in Japan, for which she provides her digital diploma by uploading it to the prospective employee’s website.” A decentralized identifier authenticates that she is the actual recipient of the degree. Moreover:

“Cryptographic authentication provides a robust verification of her claim, allowing the employer to rely on Sally’s assertion that she earned a master’s degree from the stated university without having to contact the university directly.”

Generally speaking, DI has grown with the expansion of blockchain technology, and almost all DI use cases involve a cryptographically secure blockchain at some point. DI is also developing along with zero knowledge technologies that, for example, “enable individuals to prove they own or have done something without revealing what that thing is.” A person applying for a mortgage, for example, would be able to prove that their income falls within a certain approved band without revealing to the bank their actual salary.

An important milestone?

The DI movement has arguably been flying under the radar, but the recent agreement on DI standards makes for faster progress. “The announcement of DID Core as a W3C recommendation is a very important milestone, something that many DI and SSI projects have been waiting for,” Markus Sabadello, CEO at Danube Tech, tells Magazine. It’s a signal to the whole ecosystem that the technology is ready, “not just for experimentation and proofs of concept but for serious solutions to real-life projects.” 

“The W3C DID standard’s importance is on par with phone numbers or email address standards’ vitality,” Rouven Heck, decentralized identity lead at ConsenSys Mesh and executive director at the Decentralized Identity Foundation, tells Magazine. “A high level of interoperability becomes possible once every provider uses the same specification.” 

Today, Big Tech players like Microsoft are conducting pilots, and even some governments, including the United States, Canada the European Union, Germany and Finland, have been looking at DI “as a tool to improve state-backed identity solutions,” notes Heck. 

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Still, the movement is arguably waiting for its first big use case. Pilots are happening at the fringes and are often modest in scope. 

Germany, for instance, recently launched a private/public DI pilot for the travel and hospitality sector. Data from government ID cards and employee certificates were extracted and merged to create a single verifiable credential so that when a company employee checked into one of the 120 German hotels participating in the project, the front desk operator learned immediately from a swipe of the QR code on the guest’s mobile device that “this is really a traveler from that corporation and is allowed to use whatever services we have in in the contract,” reports Florian Daniel, chief information officer of Deutsche Hospitality, who added that the trial will soon be expanded beyond Germany’s borders. 

It may seem surprising that pilots like these are happening in areas like travel rather than in healthcare or education or other places where the need for DI/SSI solutions seems more urgent. But cases like the travel example “are more straightforward to pilot, as less sensitive data is involved,” Heck tells Magazine.

Distributed identity’s impact in healthcare

Healthcare is one sector where DI could really change things. It sometimes defies common sense that a person’s health records are stored for years within a single hospital. At a minimum, decentralized identifiers would make it easier for individuals to change health service providers and platforms, but challenges remain.

“For clinicians, DIDs are much more of a sure thing because they enable better reputation registries and reduce the dependence on hospitals and other institutions as keepers of a clinician’s reputation,” Adrian Gropper, a medical doctor and chief technology officer of Patient Privacy Rights — a national organization representing 10.3 million patients — tells Magazine. 

Electronic medical record with patient data and health care information in tablet. Doctor using digital smart device to read report online. Modern technology in hospital. (Source: Healthcare Law Insight)

How close is DI to mainstream adoption in the healthcare sector? “It will take many years,” says Gropper, explaining:

“The single biggest obstacle is that clinicians have allowed hospitals to control their access to patient records, and hospitals have little incentive to break their control… and risk disintermediation from the clinician-patient relationship.” 

DI solutions may be closer to fruition in areas like retail business. The convenience store sector has developed a DI solution called TruAge that’s aimed at curtailing underage purchases of products like alcohol and also restricting the amount of certain other products that can be purchased, Peter Steele, vice president of research at The Pinnacle Corporation, tells Magazine.

The system allows consumers to carry digital proof of their age on their mobile phones, “which can be scanned at a POS [point of sale] to approve age-restricted purchases,” says Steele, adding:

“It might be possible for an ‘adult’ to purchase a large number of vape products and then give them to kids. But with TruAge, they will be restricted from purchasing a large quantity — and that restriction is across all stores, not just one type of store, or a single store.” 

TruAge is now being implemented by POS suppliers, adds Steele, but “it will take a few years before it becomes ubiquitous.” 

Government’s role in decentralized identity

Many governments are also following DI progress. State agencies are likely to remain the primary issuers of many identifiers like driver’s licenses, birth certificates and social security numbers, even though DIDs and related technologies will eventually give governments less control over them, says Sabadello. 

“I think it will take a few more years, but there are already several governments investing into DID technology,” he says. “The EU Commission has been promoting the EBSI/ESSIF infrastructure — which is based on DIDs — as a key building block of a European digital identity framework.” 

The U.S. government is also looking into DI solutions. As reported, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security contracted with Danube Tech several years back to develop blockchain security solutions for digital documents like passports and green cards. Eventually, military commanders could send orders to troops in the field across decentralized digital networks, Sabadello tells Cointelegraph, and the soldiers could verify the order using DI solutions. 

“In many EU countries, we already see the exploding popularity of gov-tech solutions allowing users to identify themselves using a smartphone app,” says Gągol. One-time Know Your Customer protocols replacing repeated uploads of passports, drivers licenses, health certificates, etc. should prove popular, though this will require “much more privacy-aware solutions, as typically a lot of sensitive data is passed around in the KYC process,” Gągol adds.

Questions about SBTs 

Buterin created something of a stir in SSI quarters with his May paper on non-transferable “soulbound” tokens. Does the future belong to privately controlled digital wallets that contain one’s education and employment credentials, but also some social identifiers like “fanships” and recent travel destinations? 

“With NFT-based DI/SSI — or soulbound tokens — users can choose to supply or omit as much identifying information as they like,” Amit Chaudhary, head of DeFi research at Polygon, tells Magazine. “The end-user is in control of their information and decides how much they want to interact with or be targeted by businesses and marketers — if at all.”

Others aren’t so keen on SBTs, however. “I do not like the concept of incentivizing users to have a single wallet,” Gągol tells Magazine. Nor does he think that the vast majority of identity-related features like employment credentials, fan club memberships, etc. “should be private by default and revealed only at the request of the user.”

Some types of identity information, including academic credentials like diplomas, “should be ‘soulbound’ in the sense that the information is tied to the individual rather than being tradable,” says Kominers. But others say using NFT tokens like SBTs to represent specific identifiers may not be appropriate, “as this leads to a correlation of an individual’s activities and, therefore, their identity,” Alastair Johnson, founder and CEO of Nuggets, tells Magazine.

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A boon for the developing world?

Identity-related problems, including certification fraud, loom especially large in the developing world. According to the World Bank, some 1 billion people on the planet have no way of verifying their identity, which vastly limits their access to digital services. 

“These problems are very large, yes,” says Snorre Lothar von Gohren Edwin, co-founder and chief technology officer of Diwala. The problems that existed with regard to identity in the U.S. and Europe 15 years ago are now bubbling up in Africa, he tells Magazine.

Diwala, which claims to be the first company to develop blockchain-enabled digital credentials on the African continent, has built a platform in Uganda that allows “skill providers” to issue digital certificates to trainees, recruiters or employers that can be easily verified online. The company claims to have issued over 10,000 credentials to people and businesses across East and West Africa, with 67% customer growth in 2022.

Scalability and usability questions 

Obstacles remain before DI becomes commonplace, however. Can the technology be scaled up? Will DI as currently constituted be usable not just by businesses but by private individuals? 

On the first question: DI proponents are often insistent that private information in the future be shared on a need-to-know basis. Optimally, says Gągol: 

“Users should have an option of performing a very exhaustive KYC for the purpose of uploading the data to the ID system, but then they should only selectively disclose the information that is absolutely necessary for a given platform.”

Only binary information should be required. For example, is the buyer old enough to purchase alcohol in an online shop: Yes or no? Still, the technology to do this may not be up to speed at present, Gągol tells Magazine. “Such selective reveals are certainly possible with zk-SNARK technology, but we are yet to see a large-scale deployment of such solutions.” 

Usability must get better before DI goes mainstream, too. “We need user-friendly digital wallet solutions that can make building one’s decentralized identity intuitive and accessible to the broader population,” Kominers says.

DI’s components — DiDs, VCs and personal datastore protocols — are each “incredibly powerful” on their own, Daniel Buchner, head of decentralized identity at Block, tells Magazine. But so far they have been mostly deployed for relatively narrow use cases, usually in the business world. 

Solutions do not offer “sufficient utility or new experiences to consumers that are toothbrush-frequent in use,” Buchner says.

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Edgar Whitley, associate professor of information systems at the London School of Economics, expressed “concerns about account recovery,” especially if credentials are only held in a personal device, as well as challenges with regard to inclusion and exclusion. 

One also can’t assume that all employers will embrace DI soon, either. In the United Kingdom, where employers are required to conduct “right-to-work” checks on employees, for instance, many companies still favor face-to-face checks and “have no obvious plans for making the transition to the new approach,” Whitley tells Magazine.

“Recognition by regulatory bodies is probably one of the biggest obstacles that needs attention,” adds Chaudhary. Once regulation is in place, “companies will be receptive to decentralized identity as part of their daily operations, and the rollout can begin in earnest.”

The future of decentralized identity

If SSI/DI ever do become commonplace, they could spur some interesting spinoffs. Asked recently about the future prospects of blockchain-enabled public elections, Marta Piekarska-Geater, senior DAO strategist at ConsenSys, answered:

“The first question that I would ask is: Where are we with self-sovereign identity? Because right now, when it comes to any usage of public services or engaging with governments, you need to verify yourself.” 

Decentralized identity should give people the ability to “leverage their information frictionlessly across a wide array of platforms — and that, in turn, creates new use cases and sources of value for the underlying information itself,” Kominers tells Magazine.

Chaudhary foresees “decentralized credit scores for financial primitives and social payments in DeFi” becoming common. Other possible innovation areas are player reputation profiles for Web3 games, delegated voting, decentralized Sybil scores, and “domain-expertise reputation for DAOs to enable new decision-making and governance models,” he says. 

Some believe that decentralized identity solutions are long overdue. Piekarska-Geater, based in the U.K., was born in Poland and still travels with a Polish passport. “I was in situations where I couldn’t leave a country because my passport wasn’t accepted at the border,” she tells Magazine. In one instance, she was held up because her passport’s biometric page had a slight tear. “We are in the 21st century, and that is still happening on a regular basis.”

Chaudhary offered some consolation:

“Once the DI infrastructure is in place, carrying physical IDs will become obsolete.”

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Andrew Singer has been a regular contributor to Cointelegraph since October 2019. He has been a professional business writer and editor for more than 30 years, including 25 years as founder and editor-in-chief of Ethikos: The Journal of Practical Business Ethics, which still publishes. In 2017 he obtained a Master’s degree in statistics from Columbia University — which spurred his interest in AI, machine learning, and blockchain technology. He currently lives in Peekskill, New York and likes to hike in the Hudson Highlands.

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